Modeling and performance evaluation of cluster tools using Petri nets -
in: Emerging Technologies, Robotics and Control Systems, vol.3,
ed. S. Pennacchio; International Society for Advanced Research, Palermo,
Italy, pp.59-67, 2009 (ISBN 978-88-901928-7-6).
A cluster tool is an integrated manufacturing system consisting of process,
transport, and cassette modules, mechanically linked together, that is used
in manufacturing of semiconductor chips. Because of high throughput
requirements, cluster tools perform a number of activities concurrently.
Petri nets are formal models developed specifically for representation of
concurrent activities and for their coordination. In timed nets, the durations
of modeled activities are represented by occurrence times associated with
transitions, and this allows to study the performance characteristics of the
modeled systems. A systematic approach to deriving timed Petri nets models
of cluster tools is proposed which is based on formal description of tool
configurations and changes of configurations of the tool. The approach
can be used for modeling and evaluation of a large variety of cluster tools.
Cluster tools, manufacturing systems, semiconductor manufacturing, Petri nets,
M. Ajmone Marsan, G. Conte, G. Balbo, "A class of generalized stochastic
Petri nets for the performance evaluation of multiprocessor systems";
ACM Trans. on Computer Systems, vol.2, no.2, pp.93--122, 1984.
F. Bause, P.S. Kritzinger, Stochastic Petri nets - an introduction to
the theory (Academic Studies in Computer Science); Vieweg Verlag 1996.
P. Burggraaf, "Coping with the high cost of wafer fabs"; Semiconductor
International, vol.18, no.3, pp.45--50, 1995.
J. Kim, A.A. Desrochers, "Modeling and analysis of semiconductor
manufacturing plants using time Petri net models"; Proc. IEEE Int. Conference
on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC'97), pp.3227--3232, 1997.
F. Krueckeberg, M. Jaxy, "Mathematical methods for calculating invariants
in Petri nets"; in Advances in Petri Nets 1987 (Lecture Notes in
Computer Science 266), pp.104-131, Springer-Verlag 1987.
J. Martinez, M. Silva, "Simple and fast algorithm to obtain all invariants
of a generalized Petri net"; in Applications and Theory of Petri Nets
(Informatik Fachberichte 52); pp.301-310, Springer-Verlag 1982.
P.M. Merlin, D.J. Farber, "Recoverability of communication protocols
- implications of a theoretical study"; IEEE Trans. on Communications,
vol.24, no.9, pp.1036--1049, 1976.
T. Murata, "Petri nets: properties, analysis and applications";
Proceedings of IEEE, vol.77, no.4, pp.541--580, 1989.
T.L. Perkinson, R.S. Gyurcsik, P.K. MacLarty, "Single-wafer cluster tool
performance: an analysis of the effects of redundant chambers and
revisitations sequences on throughput"; IEEE Trans. on Semiconductor
Manufacturing, vol.9, no.3, pp.384--400, 1996.
T.L. Perkinson, P.K. MacLarty, R.S. Gyurcsik. R.K. Cavin III, "Single-wafer
cluster tool performance: an analysis of throughput"; IEEE Trans. on
Semiconductor Manufacturing, vol.7, no.3, pp.369-373, 1994.
C.V. Ramamoorthy, G.S. Ho, "Performance evaluation of asynchronous
concurrent systems using Petri nets"; IEEE Trans. on Software Engineering,
vol.6, no.5, pp.440--449, 1980.
W. Reisig, Petri nets - an introduction; Springer-Verlag 1985.
J. Sifakis, "Use of Petri nets for performance evaluation"; in
Measuring, modeling and evaluating computer systems, pp.75-93,
M. Silva, E. Teruel, J.M. Colom, "Linear algebraic and linear programming
techniques for the analysis of place/transition net systems"; in Lectures
on Petri Nets I: Basic Models (Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1491),
pp.309-373, Springer-Verlag 1998.
M. Singer, "The driving forces in cluster tool development";
Semiconductor International, vol.18, no.8, pp.113--118, 1995.
R.S. Srinivasan, "Modeling and performance analysis of cluster tools using
Petri nets"; IEEE Trans. on Semiconductor Manufacturing, vol.11, no.3,
S. Venkatesh, R. Davenport, P. Foxhoven, J. Nulman, "A steady-state
throughput analysis of cluster tools: dual--blade versus single-blade robots";
IEEE Trans. on Semiconductor Manufacturing, vol.10, no.4, pp.418-423, 1997.
R. Wood, "Simple performance models for integrated processing tools";
IEEE Trans. on Semiconductor Manufacturing, vol.9, no.3, pp.320-328, 1996.
W.M. Zuberek, "Timed Petri nets - definitions,
properties and applications"; Microelectronics and Reliability,
(Special Issue on Petri Nets and Related Graph Models, vol.31, no.4,
W.M. Zuberek, "Timed Petri net models of multi-robot
cluster tools"; Proc. IEEE Conf. on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics
(SMC'01), Tucson, AZ, pp.2729-2734, 2001.
W.M. Zuberek, "Timed Petri nets in modeling and
analysis of cluster tools"; IEEE Trans. on Robotics and Automation,
vol.17, no.5, pp.562-575, 2001.
W.M. Zuberek, W. Kubiak, "Timed Petri nets in modeling
and analysis of simple schedules for manufacturing cells"; Journal of
Computers and Mathematics with Applications, vol.37, no.11/12, pp.191-206,
Available in pdf.